Thursday, June 30, 2011

The Future

Grayce Reed
Environmental Science 100
Warner Pacific College
June 28, 2011

Today’s human population is larger than at any time in the past. Our growing population and consumption habits affect the environment and our ability to meet the needs of the entire world’s people. Almost ninety percent of the children born today are likely to live their lives in conditions far less healthy and prosperous than most of us in the industrialized world accustomed to (Withgott & Brennen, p.220).
Human population cannot continue to rise. The question becomes how we stop it. Will it be through the gentle process of demographic transition, through governmental intervention such as China’s one-child policy or through the miserable Malthusian checks of disease and social conflict caused by overcrowding and competition for scarce resource (Withgott & Brennen, p. 220)?
Visions of our sustainable future often look like the stuff of sci-fi or comic books. I don’t know if that’s because of the often exotic locations, the large scale of the vision or the seductiveness of the computer-generated images. Nevertheless, while sci-fi and comic books remain fictional, these innovative projects are designed to be developed for real (Internet 1).
Today more than ever planners are recommending and being urged to recommend “sustainable” development practices. But what makes a development truly sustainable remains an open question, as there is uncertainty over what the sustainable community may look like as little as one generation into the future (Internet citing 2).
Sustainability is similar to the precepts of new urbanism and form-cased codes, or “smart codes,” that emphasize the public realm and connectivity. Urban planners have been perfecting these tools over the last 15 years (Internet citing 2). We need to employ the tools, especially when reworking suburbia into a form that involves an organic mix of uses such as home businesses and small shops, transforming malls into walkable downtowns, and forging links between single-family neighborhoods and these new downtowns.
The text states that a related movement among architects, planners and developers are moving toward “New urbanism”. This approach seeks to design neighborhoods on a walkable scale, with homes, schools, businesses and other amenities all close together for convenience (Withgott & Brennen, p.357). The aim is to create functional neighborhoods in which most families needs can be met close to home without the use of a car. This will also cut back on the amounts of pollution being released into the air (p.357).
This sustainable village will have a fine have a fine-grained, organic mix of uses, extensive open space and greenways and community food systems. There will be a lot fewer motor vehicles and more people (internet citing 2).
Buildings should be carbon-neutral, meaning they only use as much energy as they can generate through nonpolluting means. Locating buildings to take advantage of passive solar light and heat, and installing heating or photovoltaic systems and even vegetated rooftops are concepts we know how to implement (Internet citing 2).
Industrial agriculture has allowed food production to keep pace with our growing population, but it involves many adverse environmental and social impacts. Impacts range from degradation of soils to reliance on fossil fuels to problems arising from pesticides use, genetic modification and intensive feedlot and agriculture operations (Withgott & Bennen, p. 271).
Sustainable agriculture is agriculture that does not deplete soils faster than they form. It is farming and ranching that does not reduce the amount of healthy soil, clean water and genetic diversity essential to long-term crop production and livestock production (Withgott & Bennen, p.271). One way of making agriculture sustainable is reducing the fossil fuel-intensive inputs we invest in it and decreasing the pollution, these inputs cause (p.271). These neighborhoods transportation will be close public transit systems.
Sustainability demands a further challenge – that we stabilize our population size in time to avoid destroying the natural systems that support our economies and societies (Wittgott & Brennen, p.220).
In closing, I would like to say that I plan to use the information learned in this class to teach the children the importance of recycling, reusing, conservation and preservation of our planet and natural resources. I think it is important that we start preparing our children as soon as they can talk, so they understand the importance sustainability. I already teach my two and three year-year olds how to not be wasteful by taking only what they need, cleaning up the outdoors and ridding it of things that will go into the landfills or in up in our planets waters. We plant our own garden and compost discarded fruits and veggies. We also talk to parents about what they can do in their homes and communities to further address these issues. Lastly, we teach them it is best to walk or use mass transit whenever possible.

Does our sustainable future look like this? Internet citing 1. http://www.building4change/pame.jso?id=335.

Shigley, P. (2011). What a sustainable community looks like in the future? Internet citing 2.

Wittgott, J. , & Brennan, S. (2010, pp. 220, 357 , 271). Environment: The Science Behind the
Stories (4th ed.). New York. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 13: 978-0-3210-715334--0

Christianity and the environment

Eric Pierce
Environmental Studies, PHS 100A
June 28, 2011

Christianity and the environment

Recently I noticed that my church has been encouraging recycling by placing bins around the church and reusing the outside cover of the announcements. My pastor has also taught on the importance of caring for the earth that God has entrusted us with. There are also several Christians that I know that are aware of environmental problems and are encouraging others to help bring positive change to the environment. The Bible is very clear on environmental stewardship, in Genesis 1: 26-28 God instructs Adam how to manage his environment in the Garden of Eden. The earth is Gods and he has entrusted us to care for it (Psalms 24:1). Yes, God has given us dominion over the earth but we need to be good stewards and not wreck it, as God is the owner.
While I don’t identify myself as a Calvinist I do like what he has to say about the earth:
The earth was given to man, with this condition, that he should occupy himself in its cultivation... The custody of the garden was given in charge to Adam, to show that we possess the things which God has committed to our hands, on the condition that, being content with the frugal and moderate use of them, we should take care of what shall remain. Let him who possesses a field, so partake of its yearly fruits, that he may not suffer the ground to be injured by his negligence, but let him endeavour to hand it down to posterity as he received it, or even better cultivated. Let him so feed on its fruits, that he neither dissipates it by luxury, nor permits it to be marred or ruined by neglect. Moreover, that this economy, and this diligence, with respect to those good things, which God has given us to enjoy, may flourish among us; let everyone regard himself as the steward of God in all things, which he possesses. Then he will neither conduct himself dissolutely, nor corrupt by abuse those things, which God requires to be preserved (Calvin, 1554)

Written in 1554, long before the environmental problems we face today, Calvin had the right idea of being good to the land and being a good steward to all God has provided. I believe that todays church needs to breakaway from the environmental policies of conservative politics. A survey done in 1995 showed that Christians who identified themselves as democrats are likely to have a pro-environment attitude while those who identified as conservative republicans are less likely to have a pro-environment attitude (Guth, Green, Kellstedt, & Smidt, 1995). I find it troubling that the survey found that most conservative Christian voters don’t support environmental policies. Do Christians not understand that God has entrusted them to care for his creation. Christians need to speak up and stop believing that they have no control over environmental policies. Just because someone cares about the environment doesn’t make him or her some extreme political activist.
Christians should care about the environment because recent environmental changes have brought suffering to the poor and weak. We are called to “Love our neighbours as ourselves”. Would we allow ourselves to consume polluted waters or live on polluted lands, I would think not. Christians need to address the use of fossil fuels and their effects on the environment. As stewards of Gods creation it is our duty to protect the environment. Christians can start electing conservative political leaders that support environmental policies. Most importantly we can all do our part by encouraging our church leaders to develop recycling programs for the church and to teach on environmental stewardship.

Calvin, J. (1554). Commentary on Genesis Volume 1. Retrieved 06 25, 2011, from Christian Classic Library:
Guth, J. L., Green, J. C., Kellstedt, L. A., & Smidt, C. E. (1995). Faith and the Environment: Religious Beliefs and Attitudes on Environmental Policy. American Journal of Political Science , 39 (2), 364-382

Building a Sustainable Future

Joe Burns
Environmental Studies
PHS 100A
Warner Pacific College
June 28, 2011

Building a Sustainable Future
About five years ago I bought a hybrid automobile. I would like to say that I bought it because of my concern for the environment, but honestly my purchase was primarily driven by economics. With gas prices rising and not much hope for those prices falling, the job I had at the time required me to drive to work each day which ended up being a round trip distance of about 30 miles a day. I drove a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV), and the amount of money I was spending each week on gas was much more than I would have liked to spend. Hybrid cars get much better gas mileage than non-hybrid autos, so I made a decision to go “green” for economic reasons. Actually, the hybrid SUV I purchased was higher priced than the non-hybrid model, which nearly swayed me away from buying the hybrid. The point I am attempting to make with this story is that it is extremely important that businesses (with the help of government intervention) find ways to develop sustainable (green) products and resources that are not only the environmentally friendly choice, but also the most inexpensive alternative.
Many times the “bottom line” is the primary factor when making a decision. This definitely comes into play when making environmental decisions. Sometimes going “green” is not the prudent choice to make for individuals. If a person is given the option to purchase a hybrid or electric car, in the same style and condition as a gas-powered model, that person would likely select the former. Unfortunately, the hybrid and electric models are still more expensive than the gas-powered models. According to Mike Van Nieuwkuyk, director of global vehicle research at J.D. Power and Associates,"The bottom line is that most consumers want to be green, but not if there is a significant personal cost to them." (Valdes-Dapena, 2011). More and more automakers are introducing new hybrid models and electric models. 31 of these models existed in 2009, but come 2016 there is expected to be 159, including models from every major auto manufacturer. However, despite the escalating gas prices, and the push to be more environmentally conscious, market research predicts that hybrid and electric cars will make up less than 10% of new car sales through 2016. (Valdes-Dapena, 2011).
Just as organically grown foods are generally more expensive than non-organic foods, purchasing green products, or converting to renewable energy sources can at times be the more costly alternative, especially when there is major renovation needed to accommodate the environmentally conscious choice, such as a business or homeowner installing solar panels to replace other non-renewable energy sources. In the long run, the choice to go “green” could be more economically favorable, but for small businesses or people on a tight budget, making this switch is not even an option. It is important that the government support this commitment by offering tax incentives to individuals who make the environmentally safe selection, and offer similar tax breaks to companies that invest in research and development of sustainable products that are also affordable to the general public.
Instead of using billions of dollars of government funding to bail out banks and lending institutions who have negligently squandered the fortunes of their companies, I would much rather see that money used to reward organizations who are committed to creating products and resources that are of the greater good to our planet, and generations of people. These tax incentives would need to be tied to not only sustainability, but affordability. In a recent survey of 280 senior executives at global corporations, 88% of the respondents stated “sustainability will be important for their firms in the coming three years.” However, 44% said “immediate financial goals are an obstacle to sustainability.” (The Economist, 2011). There are already tax incentives for individuals and businesses that buy or lease a new hybrid gas-electric car or truck. Tax breaks are also given to individuals and businesses that build energy-efficient homes or buildings, or utilize certain energy-efficient products. (Blue Egg, 2010). I have not heard much about tax breaks that allow companies to develop affordable environmentally friendly products.
Another key stipulation for these incentives is that the companies must develop, manufacture, produce, etc. these products in the United States. With our nation’s current economic woes, and high unemployment rates there needs to be significant tax penalties for companies that outsource segments of their business to countries that have a lower-cost of living. Also, by outsourcing business segments, these corporations could be conducting their business operations in countries that do not comply with U.S. environmental policy. By incentivizing American companies to run their business operations on American soil, the U.S. economy will prosper and the environment will likely be better protected, or at least regulated properly.
Through this course I have become much more aware of the environment and have realized that there are many things that I can do, as little as they may be, to help protect our biosphere, and these things take nothing more than a little time and effort. As a business major, moving towards getting my Master’s degree, I would love to work for an organization that is committed to sustainability. With my extensive background working in quality and compliance areas within health care organizations, and having a strong interest and passion for process improvement projects, the potential for opportunities throughout the business world are numerous.

Valdes-Dapena, P. (2011, April, 17). CNN Money. “Green cars are ready, car buyers aren't”.
Retrieved from:
Blue Egg. (2010). “Tax Credits for Green Purchases”. Retrieved from:
The Economist. (2011, February, 11). “The sustainable future. Promoting growth through
sustainability”. Retrieved from:

Friday, June 24, 2011

Janet Woods' view on Earthquakes

Environmental Studies PHS 100A
Warner Pacific College
June 23, 2011

Natural Hazards:

I have never experienced a natural disaster or hazard. There have been times when natural disasters have occurred within a fifty mile radius of where I lived. I was raised in southern California where earthquakes seem to be a part of everyday life. Yet there were only a few that stand out in my memory.
The first earthquake that I remember occurring happened the day after my tenth birthday. The epicenter was in the San Fernando Valley. The magnitude of the quake was 6.6 and was felt throughout southern California, western Arizona and southern Nevada. The quake lasted approximately sixty seconds, but did extensive damage and sixty-five people died and over two thousand people were injured. A newly built, earthquake resistant, hospital collapsed, freeway over passes collapsed, freeway asphalt buckled. Landslides caused extensive damage in areas where fault line activity had not been observed prior to the 1971 quake. I remember traveling, with the family, driving north almost a year later and still seeing the broken asphalt off to the side of the interstate. It was estimated the quake caused in excess of five million dollars damage.
There were many quakes felt throughout the years growing up; but none held the emotional response as the San Fernando quake. Another quake that holds a memory happened on the evening of my son’s birth. My sister had come to the hospital to visit and we had the news on the television and the newscasters reacted in the same way we did in questioning whether that was a quake. The quake was 6.2 magnitudes and was just a foreshock. Early the next morning a 6.7 quake was felt throughout southern California. The epicenter was near the Imperial Valley. This quake rolled for what seemed like several minutes but only lasted approximately a minute. This quake caused the damage to the walls of the canals in the Southern California Irrigation systems. There were only two deaths reported in this quake but over six hundred thousand dollars damage to the irrigation systems.
Earthquakes happen due to the shift in the layers of the earth. The heat from the inner layers of the earth cause shifts “drives convection currents that flow in loops in the mantle, pushing the mantle’s soft rock cyclically upward (as it warms) and downward (as it cools),” (Withgottt, 2011p.35). These shifts cause changes to the earth’s surface. These changes affect not only the man made materials; it also affects the entire ecosystem of the area; sometimes permanently altering the area.
Nothing I have been through comes close to the devastation cause by the earthquake in Haiti. The estimated loss of life in is two hundred thirty thousand people. There are still many people who do not have a place to live. Tourism was a major part of the economic system for the Haitian people and so much was destroyed; the tourism trade is not recovering quickly enough.
Another earthquake that has caused massive destruction occurred recently in Japan. The country was not only affected by the earthquake, but they were also hit with devastating tsunami. The tsunami wiped out entire villages, changing the countryside forever.
The environment is changed in the surrounding areas of the epicenter. Sometimes there are able to recover given enough time. Other areas will have extreme difficulty in recovering from the changes in the eco-system.

References retrieved June 21st, 2011. retrieved June 21st, 2011.
Withgott, J., & Bennan, S. (2011). Environment: the science behind the stories (4th ed.). New York. Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

Earthquakes in the Northwest by Floyd Wills

Earthquakes in the Northwest
Floyd Wills
Environmental Studies
PHS 100A
Warner Pacific College
June 22, 2011

“There was a shaking, jumping up and trembling of the earth beneath, and a rolling up of the great waters.” –From Native American oral tradition.
In January 1700, one of the largest earthquakes in history struck off the Oregon and Washington coast. It is believed by researchers to have been a magnitude 9. This powerful quake caused a 30’ high tsunami to hit the low-lying coastal areas, causing tremendous destruction. The Native American tribes in that vicinity have passed down oral records of this event through the present day. These tribes believed the earthquake was a result of a battle between the Great Thunderbird and a Whale.
According to The Neighborhood Emergency Team Participant Manual (2008 p.2) Scientists have determined that the earthquake in 1700 was a “subduction zone” quake. Subduction zone earthquakes occur when great crustal plates slide underneath another plate. The research indicates that these quakes occur on average every 300-500 years. The most recent one was the January 26th, 1700 quake.
The tectonic plates that threaten the Pacific Northwest are known as the Cascadia Subduction Zone. There are two massive tectonic plates that are colliding with each other. These plates are called the Juan de fuca plate, which stretches 750 miles from British Columbia to Northern California, and the North American Plate, which is shifting westward. The collision of these plates sets the stage for potentially devastating quakes. In the spring of 2008, a series of previously unknown faults; a fracture in the continuity of a rock formation caused by a shifting or dislodging of the earth’s crust, was discovered after a swarm of undersea quakes that occurred 140 miles southwest of Newport on March 30th. This swarm of earthquakes registered a magnitude of 3 and 4. Experts were puzzled because the quakes appeared to be caused by volcanic activity coming from the middle of the Juan de fuca plate. Earthquakes that are usually the result of volcanic activity happen along the edge of tectonic plates, not originating from the middle like this one appeared to be. The Juan de fuca plate is caught between two larger plates that are squeezing it. In the article, Previously Unknown fault caused earthquake swarm of Oregon’s coast (2009). William Willcock, a marine geophysicist and professor of oceanography at the University of Washington, said there is emerging evidence that earthquakes and volcanic eruptions separated by hundreds of miles away my be interlinked.
What is the likelihood of Oregon getting hit by another “Big One?” Scientists predict that we have between a 10 and 15 percent chance of experiencing a magnitude 9 quake within the next 50 years. This of course is just an estimate, as it is practically impossible to predict when the next major earthquake will strike. Scientists have been studying the past patterns of earthquakes in hopes of recognizing predictable patterns in the hopes of improving their forecast of future earthquakes.
I will never forget the earthquake experiences I have had here in Portland. The first one occurred back on March 25, 1993. It was early morning, and I was getting ready for work, when all of a sudden the whole house began to shake. It sounded as if a freight train was driving through my backyard! As quickly as it started, it stopped. Fortunately, there were only minor reports of injuries and property damage in the Portland area. My second quake experience occurred on February 28, 2001. I was at work when this quake struck. The office building I was in started to slowly shake. Immediately, people began to run for the exits, which I learned much later on is not necessarily the wise thing to do! Luckily, none of my co-workers were injured, though this quake left 400 injuries between Seattle and Portland and caused 2 billion dollars in property damage. In the article, A region at risk geologic dangers shared by Portland and Seattle make last week’s message clear: we’ve been warned, Hill (2001). The author states that scientists said the amount of energy unleashed in this quake was the equivalent of three times the power of the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima. This quake actually shoved Seattle about two-tenths of an inch to the northwest!
Both Portland and Seattle sit on top of the North American tectonic plate, which overlies the Juan de fuca plate. Both cities are at risk of earthquakes. Scientists have identified three large faults in Portland: The East Bank fault, the Portland Hills fault, and the Oatfield fault. The East Bank fault underlies Central Catholic and Benson High Schools, Lloyd Center mall; which I work a few blocks away from, The Oregon Convention Center, Rose Garden Arena, Mocks Bottom, and University of Portland. The Portland Hills fault runs from the northern edge of Forest Park, goes along the foot of Portland’s West Hills and beneath Portland State University, crosses the Willamette River and heads southwest to Milwaukie. The Oatfield fault runs west of Skyline road from Germantown Road through Bonny Slope. Much of Portland’s soil is comprised of lose sediment deposited by gigantic ice-age floods that swept down the Columbia River about 15,000 years ago. This type of loose soil amplifies the shaking during an earthquake. How would our infrastructure hold up in the face of a major earthquake? It is estimated that 64 percent of Oregon’s bridges would be destroyed. The Coast would be entirely cut off. All connecting highways through the mountains would be susceptible to landslides. Half of Oregon’s current schools are not up to earthquake code, and there are still many older buildings constructed of unreinforced masonry, which would probably collapse during a quake. Estimates of casualties could well be in the thousands. Oregon’s energy infrastructure is very vulnerable, specifically our fuel pipelines, petroleum storage tanks, ports, and transmission lines.
What can we do as individuals to prepare for such a disaster? You can start by preparing a 72-hour survival kit that contains food, water, a battery operated radio, flashlights, and some basic tools to shut off water and gas lines. The Portland Fire Bureau offer an intensive eight week course in emergency preparedness that I have personally gone through and highly recommend. That training could save you and your family’s life. You will also be able to help those in your community as well.
When it comes to the destructive power of Mother Nature, we are like little ants in the face of a hurricane, earthquake, or tsunami. We cannot control many of the major events that shape the geology of our planet, but we can learn to appreciate the precious gift of life that we have been given by The Creator.

Hill, R. L. (2001, March). A Region at risk geologic dangers shared by Portland and Seattle make last week's message clear: we've been warned. Retrieved from
Rojas-Burke, J. (2009, October). Previously Unknown fault caused earthquake swarm off Oregon’s coast. Retrieved from
Withgott, J. & Brennan, S. (2011). Environment, The Science Behind The Stories. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education Inc.
Neighborhood Emergency Team Participant Manual. (2008). Portland: Office of Emergency Management.

Being prepared for a hailstorm by Brandi Rubio

Being prepared for a hailstorm
Brandi Rubio
Environmental Studies
PHS 100 A
Warner Pacific College
June 22, 2011

When you think of a natural disaster what comes to mind? Many people will answer this question with the more common disasters, such as; tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and hurricanes or tsunamis. What many Americans don’t realize is that one of the most dangerous natural disasters is actually Hailstorms. In the next few paragraphs, I will explain how hailstorms have affected us in the past and what we may learn from them in order to prepare ourselves if we should ever come into contact with a hailstorm.

A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard. It can lead to financial, environmental and human losses. The resulting loss typically depends on the vulnerability and preparedness of the affected population. One of these major disasters is a hailstorm. A hailstorm is precipitation in the form of balls of clear ice and compact snow. Scientists do not know how hailstorms form and grow. What we do know is that they are spherical and usually vary in diameter up to ½ inch. In many cases, hailstorms have been reported as having a diameter of 5 inches. Hailstorms are known to cause significant damage and are usually accompanied by a tornado, but this isn’t always the case. The massive storms can cause injury to crops, livestock, property and airplanes.
Because a hailstorm is a kind of thunderstorm mostly observed in the afternoon hours of summer, many people don’t see it coming. It starts with Ice crystals, cause by sudden updrafts and down drafts. When a strong air current passes through clouds containing super cooled droplets of water, the result is hail. For this to happen, the air temperature must fall below zero degrees centigrade. Tiny dust particles floating in the air catalyzes the transformation of water into ice. If water deposit continues for a longer period of time, small ice crystals develop into a hailstorm. When the icy deposit becomes 5mm in diameter, it is termed a hailstone.

In 1939 a major hailstorm struck India. The storm measured over a thirty square mile area in the southern part of the country. It killed cattle and sheep and damaged crops. Some of the hailstones were said to have weighed more than seven pounds. One of the most recent hailstorms reported in the United States happened in Norman, Oklahoma. It was said to be one of the most intense hailstorms ever witnessed. On May 17, 2010 Emergency Medical services responded to over 21 injuries to residents. The storm damaged two ambulance units, one fire truck and 34 police vehicles. Wind gusts were as high as 60 mph which left leaves, branches and other debris all over the town. The storm produced so much hail, it looked like a snowstorm had hit.
There isn’t much we can do in order to be prepared for a hailstorm; the one thing we can all do individually is get educated. In order to be prepared, you have to learn about what’s to come and know the damages likely to be caused. In order to prepare yourself for a major hailstorm, make sure that your cars and home are properly secured, animals in the house, and do not go outside. This only increased your chance of injury from flying debris and garbage. In a sense it’s the same preparedness you must have when facing a tornado, but with a hailstorm, you never know when it’s coming!


Natural Hazards of Camping by Judy Kiepke

Environmental Studies
PHS 100A
Judy Kiepke
Professor David Terrell Ph. D.
Warner Pacific College
June 22, 2011

There are natural hazards in life we have no control over. What control we do have is how we react to them. Being prepared is a good part of survival but ultimately survival may come as a gift from a power stronger than any natural hazards. As a family we love to go camping up in the wilderness. Every Fourth of July we travel to East Lake and set up camp trying to prepare for any extreme types of weather. Not surprising we have encountered everything from sunshine and 90 degrees to rain, hail, wind, and the most frightening of all thunderstorms.
As a family group we prepare for the hazards of being in the wilderness, closer to the sun we bring our sun screens. The ones that don’t like sun screen wear long sleeves and hats. In this day and age we need to guard our skin from the UV rays and cumulative damage done by the sun. We never know if we are the one that will get skin cancer. As a parent we apply sunscreen to our children and hope that the ones that escaped don’t get burned to bad. As parents we worry even about the chemicals within the sunscreen. My husband and teenage grandsons challenge me when it comes to applying this form or sun protection.
Another thing we do when setting up camp is check out the conditions of the trees around our camp. You never know when a tree may fall on someone in the camp. I know this is not a common problem but we have seen storms that build up over the horizon that drop right down over us. The large white and dark clouds that role over the hills can surprise us with most any type of weather. It is both awesome and scary at the same time. You know you have no power when it comes to a spring time storm. The wind runs through the trees, the rain pours down as we quickly cover all the things we have out. Preparing ourselves for this gives us a satisfying feeling. We look for the dead limbs and the trees that are sick so if the wind blows they will not harm anyone. Some things you have no control over!
We have enjoyed snow and hail storms also. Standing under the tarps we have watched the ground be covered with snowball hail. Some were as large as a pea causing excitement that runs through the camp. So refreshing to see and hear. So clean and peaceful compared to a downfall of rain. It comes as quickly as it goes, and pictures are taken to remind us of the power of the weather. It goes from warm to cold quickly. We add wood to our fire and Thank God for the variety of weather that this day brings. We have no control over the weather patterns. Being caught out on the river in a boat may bring a little concern as you hear the booms and see the flashes of a fast approaching thunderstorm.
Springtime thunderstorms are one of the most frightening hazards here in Oregon. Those dark clouds, the cold winds, over a warm afternoon, the flashes of lightning followed by very loud thunder claps. We count the seconds between the boom and the flash. I will tell you I have a great respect for the power of a thunderstorm. I know the probability of being hit by lightning is small but being in the wrong place brings those odds to 100 percent. I do not want to temp the lighting Gods! Being educated about lightning and being prepared for the possibility is the least we can do.
Thunderstorms bring wind and preparing the area beforehand is a good start. Removing dead limbs and branches can help prevent that accident from happening when the wind blows. I was reading the 30/30 lightning rule. It says go indoors if you see lightning and cannot count to 30 before hearing thunder. Stay indoors thirty minutes after hearing the last clap of thunder (FEMA, 2011). This is not possible when camping outdoors. There are things you can do to make yourself less of a lightning rod. You can get inside of your car. The rubber-soled shoes and tires do not provide protection. However, the steel frame of a hard topped vehicle provides protection as long as you don’t touch metal (FEMA, 2011).
Avoid standing under the tallest tree, or hilltops, open fields or a boat in the water. Do not stand on or hold anything metal. Like a bicycle or on top of a car. Anything that conducts electricity should be avoided. Being prepared will help us to identify where and what we do in case of a thunderstorm that blows in. In a forest seek shelter in a low area under a thick growth of small trees. As I read information one thing that sticks out is if you feel your hair stand on end that means lightning is about to strike. Make yourself low to the ground on the balls of your feet minimizing the contact to the ground. Place your hands over your ears with your head between your knees. Make yourself the smallest target possible. Never lie flat on the ground.
So does anyone ever get hit by lightning and are my fears real? On the average, 60 people die after being struck by lightning. That is 10 percent of the nearly 600 hit each year in the U.S. alone. As explained in the article from the KATU news that 3,600 lightning strikes hit Oregon on one storm system alone moving across the Cascades (Stuart Tomlinson, 2009). Lighting up the sky for all to see and contrary to popular belief central and eastern Oregon see its fair share of thunderstorms.
In fact we had a 14 year old boy hit by lightning in La Pine, Oregon in June of 2009 which is a not far from where we camp. He was extremely lucky to survive the 50,000-degree bolt of lightning. He was warned by a friend not to go outside to watch the thunderstorm rumbling overhead. About 1 in 7000,000, according to the National Weather Service is your chances of being hit by lightning (Stuart Tomlinson, 2009). Odds were not in his favor. He made the odds 100 percent by being outside in its path.
Being out in the wilderness around a campfire adds to the awesome experience of seeing the power of a thunderstorm. Knowledge helps to keep us safe, but ultimately safety comes from doing what we know to do and being protected by the one that has the power to protect! The things we learn while camping and being in the outdoors brings about some hazards that we can avoid and in a small form some that we cannot avoid. Nature has power and hazards but by knowing what the hazards are we can enjoy and avoid them most of the time. The benefits of camping outdoors with our families outweigh the hazards that we have no control over. The control we do have is being prepared.

FEMA. (2011, June 22). Thunderstorms and Lightning. Retrieved June 22, 2011, from Natural Hazards:
Stuart Tomlinson, T. O. (2009, June 04). Oregon teen expected to recover from lightgning strike. Retrieved June 22, 2011, from Orgin la pine teen hospitalized afte.html


Environmental Studies
Lisa L. Griggs
David Terrell Ph.D.
Warner Pacific College
June 23, 2011

Everyone faces the risk of natural disaster and no plan can increase society vulnerability to natural disasters. The most recent and numbing to watch was Hurricane Katrina. As I watch on television it seemed as everyone from the citizen’s to the state partners to federal government were not prepared for what was coming and what happen in the weeks that followed. I am sure there is no real way to execute a plan on that size to minimize the economically structural damage that was done. Once all is said and done after a natural disaster strikes there are lessons to be learned, learned in every disaster.
Like many American’s I have live through and watched many natural disasters. Two experiences of where I might have experienced a natural disaster both on a removed level. The first was when I was nine I lived in Spokane, Washington which sits east of Mount St. Helen’s when it exploded back in 1980. The second major event happen when I lived outside the Bay Area of California and the earthquake of 1989 known now as the Loma Prieta earthquake.
When Mount St. Helen’s erupted I only remember certain things about that day and the days that followed. I remember it was a sunny day and I was at my soccer game and the grown up were mumbling about something, and in a hurry to get home before…. Unaware on not caring because of my age I really did not understand the effect of a mountain’s eruption and its plume of ash would have on us. The next day, both my parents were still at home and remember them saying they had no work today and them telling school was canceled and the city was closed because of the “ash.” When I looked outside I saw gray dust cloud I reminded me of a cold winter day with heavy fog. The heavy fog of ash lasted what seemed like days and when we were finally able to go about our daily lives, we all had to wear those white surgical masks when we when outside because the air quality and its unknown effect of breathing in ash could have on people. I remember people shoveling ash like snow from sidewalks, driveways, spraying the ash with water which only left the ash a big pasty mess.
With the quake of 1989, I remember the way the ground below me move and watching the inside of our house sway and creek as the floor rolled beneath us. At the time we lived in Fairfield California about 100 miles away from the epi-center. It was a totally amazing and scary event to experience, but knowing that if we felt it we were close to the center or it was considered to be the “big” one. After, the novelty wearing off we all were glued to the television watching the reports of chaos to the disruption to the World Series happening at Candlestick stadium outside of San Francisco, hearing the Bay Bridge had expansion collapse, the footage of the Cypress structure outside of Oakland a two deck bridge, now pancaked and crumpling. I remember see all the devastation on television at the local level and people where trying to figure out the best method to get emergency service to the people closes to the mountain to how and where to start the clean up.
Both of these events at their times respectively were economically destructive as well as massed structural damage, “the May 18, 1980, event was the most deadly and economically destructive volcanic eruption in the history of the United States.” (Tilling, R., Topinka, L., Swanson, D.) While “the quake caused an estimated $6 billion ($11 billion in current value) in property damage, becoming one of the most expensive natural disasters in U.S. history at the time.” (U.S. Geological Survey)
People who live in “tornado alley” or long the Gulf Coast and have tornado season after each season most people chose to rebuild they are learning to make those structural improvements to better withstand the damage after a windstorm. Those living along rivers are regulating new structures and home from being built located on flood plains and if they have been flooded, engineers are rebuilding structures located outside the flood plains. But the best way to minimize the effect is emergency preparedness working well with the city, county and state partners with the federal government.
One way for citizens to become more prepared to respond to potential emergencies including natural disaster is become educated on emergency preparedness Larry Collins a member of the Los Angeles County Fire Department and Urban search-and-rescue (US&R) says “to the contrary, decision makers in any region prone to earthquakes or other hazards will find important parallels in terms of the need for public awareness of local hazards; improved public education to help improve personal readiness of the affected population; well-oiled and robust, multi-tiered emergency response systems; the use of well-considered construction codes and ordinances to improve the performance of structures and lifelines; and the ability of all levels of government and the military to respond quickly, effectively and in unison during disasters.” (Collins, L.)
Where ever you live across American you cannot avoid natural disaster. On a whole from government to every day citizens we all have to take measures to prevent and minimize our vulnerability to endure those disasters. Be prepared, get educated.

Collins, Larry, “Lessons Learned from California Earthquake Exercise” my Firefighter, retrieved on June 20, 2011 from from?q=profiles/blogs/lessons-learned-from
Tilling, Robert I., Topinka, Lyn and Swanson, Donald A. (1990). "Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Past, Present, and Future". The Climactic Eruption of May 18, 1980. U.S. Geological Survey (Special Interest Publication). ure.html. Retrieved June 20, 2011
Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Department of Homeland Security,
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument on the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Retrieved June 20, 2011!ut/p/c5/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9C P0os3gjAwhwtDDw9_AI8zPwhQoY6IeDdGCqCPOBqwDLG- AAjgb6fh75uan6BdnZaY6OiooA1tkqlQ!!/dl3/d3/L2dJQSEvUUt3QS9ZQnZ3LzZfMjA wMDAwMDBBODBPSEhWTjJNMDAwMDAwMDA!/?navtype=BROWSEBYSUBJE CT&cid=stelprdb5199437&navid=091000000000000&pnavid=null&ss=110623&positio n=Not%20Yet%20Determined.Html&ttype=detail&pname=Mt%20St.%20Helens%20Na tional%20Volcanic%20Monument%20-%20Home
U.S. Geological Survey. San Andreas Fault, chapter 1, p. 5. "Comparison of the Bay Area Earthquakes: 1906 and 1989." Retrieved August 31, 2009 and June 21, 2011

Natural Disasters Who Should Pay by Colleen DeShazer

Colleen DeShazer
PHS 100 A
Instructor Dr. T.
Warner Pacific College
June 23, 2011

Natural disasters happen every where every day. Some are relatively small in comparison to others. Some of us never hear or read about small local disasters and our attention is generally only drawn to those disasters that make the national or world news. Big or small, national or worldwide natural disasters that gain the most focus are always those in which there is a human element, loss of life and or loss of property. Who pays for these losses? Big or small, natural disasters or disasters created by man, what is the bottom line?

Often coupled with acts of God, we as human beings make decisions about where we live and in the wake of those decisions we often put ourselves in a position that poses a risk to life and property. Should our government pay for these choices? Should we as taxpayers pay to rebuild communities that are hit time and time again with the same type of disaster? Vernonia, Oregon is one such example. Located in Columbia County approximately 40 miles north or Portland, Vernonia, Oregon has faced this dilemma several times in the last decade. In 1996 and again in 2007 the small sleepy town of 2,500 has been devastated by flooding. The two incidents have cost the city of Vernonia over a million dollars in infrastructure losses and loss of property values of over 30 million dollars. FEMA has spent over 10 million dollars in the two flooding incidents combined spending has been focused on housing repairs, rental costs and mitigation money to assist homeowners in elevating their homes. Additionally in the 2007 flood the school system suffered as well. Estimates to replace the Vernonia K-12 school are approximately 50 million dollars. Businesses and residents generally have suffered millions of dollars in losses as well. So how much is too much? The combined total loss for the two flooding incidents in Vernonia are well over $150 million dollars, that is just in losses that have been tabulated through insurance proceeds and government expenditures.

Since flooding is likely to happen again, do we have a responsibility to stop the hemorrhaging of public money to continually rebuild a community? Do we have a responsibility to close the town? Do we as a society have a responsibility to bandage up the emotional ties the residents have to this small town and simply ask the last one out to turn off the lights? Will it take loss of life to force the debate? The residents of Vernonia love their beautiful little town and with its beautiful country setting and location near the Nehalem River it is quite breathtaking. However, the decision to live in Vernonia with the impending possibility that catastrophic flooding will again occur should not be the financial burden of taxpayers of this state or federally. Local legislation as well as congressional action needs to be implemented to force change. Change is never easy but if it saves lives and puts tax dollars to work to build not continually rebuild I believe we have an obligation to society to implement such changes.

Withgott, J., & Bennan, S. (2010) Environment: The Science Behind the Stories (4th ed.) New
York. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. ISBN: 13: 978-0-321-71534--0

Natural Hazards by Melissa Conlon

Environmental Science
Dr. T
Warner Pacific College
June 23, 2011

In today’s society we have taken over much of what used to be unused land, and natural resources, with sky rises, houses, businesses, farms, schools, and roads, much of which can be wiped out in an instance, leaving people dead, maimed or suffering without shelter, food or clean water. Our scientists and government in recent incidences have become aware creating policies, and organizations to help in lieu of such disasters.
The geoscience and natural hazards policy reads: “The Geological Society of America (GSA) urges scientists, policy makers, and the public to work together to reduce our vulnerability to natural hazards. GSA strongly supports government investment in research, monitoring, and outreach programs to better characterize the nature and distribution of natural hazards and their impacts on modern society, to increase hazards awareness, and to enlist the resources of the private sector. Geoscientists must effectively communicate and integrate their research and monitoring results into functional public policy, reach out to the private sector to find mutually beneficial common ground, and work to integrate geoscience into scientifically sound educational programs at all levels.
(1) Encourages increased public and private investments to reduce natural hazards vulnerability through better understanding of geologic processes.
(2) Emphasizes the crucial role of geoscience education and outreach in broadening the public’s understanding of their risk from natural hazards and the available options to reduce risk.
(3) Promotes active participation of geoscientists in implementing public policy that will improve society’s resilience to natural hazards.” (2005, October)
Because natural hazards are a very large part of our everyday lives as we continue to build bigger cities and have more children putting more stress on earth’s boundaries, we as a society should be very aware that one earth quake, tornado, tsunami, volcano or any other sort of hazard may only be hours or days away.
Our homes, businesses, and lives are made of things that can be destroyed in an instant. Yet, we live day to day thinking the things we see in Japan for instance, yet tragic will never happen to us. Yet, the possibility of it happening to us is greater than we think. Look at Portland Oregon for instance or the west coast in general. We are surrounded by water, tree’s and mountains, which at anytime could be disastrous. We live here because we love it, love the scenery, love the ocean and the mountains, but those things could also kill us and take everything we have built for ourselves.
Everyone from the government agencies such as FEMA and NOAA’s National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program to you and I need to become more away of what we can do if and when a natural disaster hits our area. Being prepared saves lives. Along with land use programs that maintain the proper use of the right levies, land use and volcano boundaries. We may not be able to predict or prevent a natural disaster from happening but we sure can lighten the effects it has on our lives and society but taking the steps now that our scientist and agencies are suggesting.

Reference Page:
Geoscience and Natural Hazards Policy . (2005, October). Retrieved June 21, 2011, from The Geological Society of America website:

Natural Disasters by Leanne Clark

Warner Pacific College
June 23, 2011

Throughout the ages, man has attempted to prepare for the wrath of Mother Nature. However, our best preparation as humans can scarcely match the great force of the element with God’s hand behind them.
In the United States our governmental agency in charge of spearheading disaster relief efforts is FEMA or Federal Emergency Management Agency. This agency is in charge of many things. At the forefront of the FEMA mission is to minimize the loss of life and economic damages incurred from a natural disaster. Beyond this creed, development of safety codes, response to need and training of local authorities in how to respond to the needs of civilians are some others.
While FEMA and local agencies can plan and train infinitum, nothing can protect us from our own under estimation of nature, and the scope of a projected disaster. Additionally, planning, codes and training do not necessarily ensure a smooth implementation in the face of chaos and panic.
An example of this statement can be found in the black eye received by FEMA from it’s response to the 2005 Hurricane Katrina. Over the course of the weeks following the hurricane landing of the coast of Louisiana, FEMA director and chiefs failed to communicate with the scores of private and local governmental agencies who stood idly by waiting for permission to bring in needed supplies and evacuate the mounting number of desperate, homeless refugees. Regardless of the plans in place, and the epic disaster at hand, our government failed to execute relief on even the most basic levels. (Homeland Security, 2006)
In the face of natural and man made disaster, perhaps our greatest strength lies in our resiliency as a nation and the kindness of strangers. Time and time again, stories of recovery efforts are threaded with the efforts of grass roots relief.
Churches, humanitarian groups and individuals come. Like the stream of doctors and nurses seen walking to the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001, these men and women rebuild cities and lives. Many times the smaller groups meet needs and aid in survival where larger governmental agencies fail to even see the outstretched hand.
On a personal basis, I have a business client whose entire business portfolio lies in the tornado stricken city of Tuscaloosa, AL. Suffering a complete loss to one of his business locations, the loss of 8 rental homes and the death of tenants, I listened intently to his recount of that terrible week. As I listened, I thanked God to live in a place such as Oregon, mild in weather and climate.
While I have not taken part in weather related natural disasters, I do actively participate in what I consider to be one our greatest man made disasters, that being the epic proportion of substance addicted people, young and old. While this topic may not seem on the surface to rival such things as fishing boats left in the middle of the highway, or a town flattened, it certainly does leave wreckage and havoc at every turn in its path.
Again, where the federal and local governments have failed, small numbers of groups and individuals intervene in the face of need.
Clearly, disaster comes in all forms and there are no race or age lines drawn in those affected. We cannot stop all of the pain and suffering that has, or ever will happen from these problems. But, one individual at a time, we can make a difference.

CNN (2006). Katrina response “A failure of leadership”. Retrieved on June 20, 2011 from

The Joplin MO tornado by Angie Avey

The Joplin, MO tornado’s effect on the environment & its inhabitants
Angela Avey
PHS 100A
Dr. David Terrell
Warner Pacific College
June 23, 2011

The Joplin, MO tornado’s effect on the environment & its inhabitants
Exactly one month ago tonight, a simultaneously miraculous and devastatingly horrific tornado touched down in the city of Joplin, Missouri. Described as an EF-5 (enhanced Fujita scale) tornado, it is the most feared and respected atmospheric storm result possible. Although the city of Joplin had been issued a tornado warning 20 plus minutes before it struck, the tornado’s swift power and unwavering journey through the city proves just how vulnerable society is when it comes to natural hazards.
The Midwestern states in North America are not strangers to dangerous storms. The infamous “Tornado Alley” is situated not far from Joplin, (although interestingly, Missouri is not systematically listed in Tornado Alley) spanning parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, eastern Colorado and western Iowa. It is named Tornado Alley for its consistent seasonal activity which includes frequently strong and violent tornados. Before May 22, 2011, Joplin had experienced mild funnels during heavy thunderstorms and hail but this was like nothing anyone there had every witnessed before.
I first heard about this disaster on that Sunday evening as I was studying. I received a breaking news email alert from that a large twister had damaged some of the city of Joplin. I was concerned as I have a very dear friend living in Missouri and I was not sure how close she was to the city. I sent a text to check on her & her family and while waiting for a reply, turned on the television and saw the news flash “One-third of the city is GONE”… I could not believe it. I was able to reach my friend and she was okay, having been about one hundred miles away when the tornado touched down. She was still under a tornado watch though, so we reassured each other that she’d be alright. Her thoughts then turned to family and friends in the Joplin area, who I am very glad to say, were found alive and well with very minor injuries but some loss of property.
In the weeks that have passed since that night, people continue to pass away from their storm-related injuries. The death toll currently stands at 156 people, most of who were trying to find shelter in their homes as the storm approached. Many others were caught as they drove home from graduation celebrations and evening church gatherings. By many estimates, several hundred family pets were also killed or simply blown away by the twister. The fact that anything or anyone was able to survive a tornado of that magnitude is a miracle. An Enhanced Fujita scale 5 storm is estimated to have wind speeds upwards of 261 to 318 miles per hour! At this level of great force and energy release, trees are uprooted, debarked and splintered, creating deadly debris when unleashed by the swirling funnel. In Joplin, trees that once lined beautiful neighborhood streets are now strewn about in all areas of the city. Countless debris now litters the streets and empty lots which once held apartment buildings and family homes. Over 8,000 buildings were destroyed during the tornado, accounting for almost one-third of the buildings which serve the community of 51,500 citizens. One of the symbols of the tornado has been the St. John’s Regional Medical Center, which was directly hit by the tornado resulting in several deaths as well as the complete loss of the top two floors of the hospital. X-ray slides were found the next morning in streets and driveways nearly 70 miles from Joplin. The sheer force of the storm is almost inconceivable.
While it has been hard for me to understand & accept the full scale of the disaster and the loss of life, I am also encouraged and heartened by the resilience and hope that the survivors of this storm possess. If anything is to be learned and appreciated, it is that even when we are dealt unimaginable difficulties in our environment, the human spirit’s determination to push on can help us all pull together in time of crisis.

Hart, J. (2011, June 22). Joplin death toll climbs to 156. Kansas City Star. Retrieved from
Judy, C. (2011, May 27). An inability to tell too much: Joplin tornado timeline. Cliff’s Notes. Retrieved from
Stelter, B. & Sulzberger, A.G. (2011, May 23). A rush to protect patients, then bloody chaos. New York Times. Retrieved from
Tarp, K. (2001, October 8). Clues from climatology: When and where do tornadoes occur? NOAA Research. Retrieved from

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

FEMA by Grayce Reed

Grayce Reed
Environmental Science 100
Warner Pacific College
June 21, 2011

When I think about FEMA, I think about what happened on August 5, 2005. When hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast and the levee in New Orleans went tumbling down, it reminds me of how much we are at the mercy of the Lord and then our federal government agency to protect when a natural disaster occurs. People waited on relief efforts to aid them in their hours of need. As we, all seen on that devastating morning there was no relief efforts on the part of FEMA until it became a national media circus.
Nearly six years have passed since Hurricane Katrina drowned New Orleans in misery, but many residents have not forgiven the Federal Emergency Management Agency for its sluggish response to the storm. Now another delayed reaction by FEMA – a stop-and-start push to recoup millions of dollars in disaster aid – is reminding storm victims why they often cursed the agencies name (internet citing 1). As a new hurricane season begins Wednesday, FEMA is working to determine how much money it overpaid or mistakenly awarded to victims of the destructive 2005 hurricane season.
The agency is reviewing more than $600 million given to roughly 154,000 victims of hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma and is poised to demand that some return money (internet citing 1). FEMA's attempts to collect Katrina and Rita overpayments already have sputtered once. Residents who lost homes filed a class-action lawsuit in 2007 challenging the denial of their housing aid and the recoupment process. The lawsuit argued that FEMA's debt collection efforts were full of errors, based on vague standards and without hearings that would ensure fair treatment.
“Under our current leadership, strong protections have been put in place to greatly reduce the error rate of improper disaster payments," Racusen said in a statement. The agency said it has slashed its error rate involving disaster payments from 14.5 percent after Katrina to about 3 percent in 2009 (Internet citing 1). FEMA says it is bound by law to try to collect improper payments, but lawmakers have sponsored legislation that would authorize the agency to waive debts if they resulted from an error by FEMA. A Senate committee approved the bill Thursday. No vote by the full Senate has been scheduled. Diane Ridgley, 56, a plaintiff in the 2007 lawsuit, recalled getting a letter from FEMA demanding repayment of nearly $17,000, money she used to replace personal belongings and pay for rent after Katrina destroyed her New Orleans duplex. FEMA told her she should have been ineligible because she listed a family friend with whom she evacuated – but did not live – as a member of her household on her application (Internet citing 1).
Since FEMA has become part of the Department of Homeland Security, it has been a struggle. Funds have been raided, staff has been transferred into other DHS functions without being replaced, slowdowns because of added layers of bureaucracy for nearly all functions have dramatically increased, and there is the constant threat of reprogramming appropriated funds (Internet citing 2).
When it is all said and done, we will look back on this unjust and inhumane treatment of people and think as a nation what would God say and do. We will then begin to change and see that all of us are equal because we never know when such a terrible disaster could happen to us


Hurricane-Katrina: FEMA

Vulnerability to Natural Hazards by Joe Burns

Joe Burns
Environmental Studies
PHS 100A
Warner Pacific College
June 21, 2011

Society’s Vulnerability to Natural Hazards

I was watching a program the other day that showed news footage of the 1989 earthquake in San Francisco. A rescue worker was yelling on a megaphone “fill your bathtubs full of water” in anticipation that water systems could be impacted and that there may be limited access to water. I immediately thought I need to keep my shower very clean at all times, in case of an emergency!
I have lived in the Pacific Northwest all of my life, and always thought this was one of the safer locations to live in the United States. I have never felt that our region was very vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, floods, droughts, and other extreme weather conditions. Other than a couple minor earthquakes, and the volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens, I cannot remember being even mildly impacted or threatened by a natural disaster. In 2005, following the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Forbes magazine ranked the safest and least safe places to living in the United States. My assumption was confirmed. Of the top ten safest places to live in the U.S., seven were cities or areas within the Pacific Northwest. Ironically Honolulu, Hawaii ranked as the number one safest place to live in the United States. I believe if these rankings came out today that Hawaii’s threat of being impacted by tsunami would result in Honolulu not being ranked as high. (Forbes, 2005)
Some people are more cautious and take the needed steps to prepare their family and home should they be hit by a natural disaster. They keep numerous plastic jugs of water, a stockpile food, packets of batteries, emergency medical kits, and they may even have an evacuation plan along with some sort of safety shelter. For me, my emergency preparedness plan consists of not much more than a clean bathtub.
Our world appears to be more vulnerable to natural hazards than ever before in my lifetime. The earth’s physical systems are changing, resulting in global warning and other extreme meteorological events, and with more people tightly packed in metropolitan areas rather than spaciously distributed in rural areas, the larger cities are more vulnerable to sever devastation should a natural disaster hit those cities. (Mileti, 1999)
It’s difficult to really contemplate the vulnerabilities of societies in regions beyond the United States. I cannot imagine how people in less technologically advanced countries prepare for natural hazards, especially in those places where they are highly vulnerable. Therefore, my world-view of natural disaster preparedness does not extend outside of the U.S., and in reality, not much further from my bathtub.
There really is not much a person can do to “plan” for a natural disaster, but there are a number of things that can be done to lessen the impact these disasters have on society. The United States could improve land-use planning and limit expansion in areas that are perceived as highly vulnerable. We need to ensure that our buildings are constructed with strong enough infrastructures to withstand the destructive impact of natural hazards like earthquakes and tornadoes. We can also provide extensive training to citizens on what to do should a natural hazard hit their area. This should be done on the local level so it is specific to the individual areas, and the threats that may impact those communities. These communities need to also organize rescue teams that are prepared to respond and assist during a natural disaster. (Mileti, 1999)
Many times countries, states, cities, and communities do not take the necessary steps to carefully prepare for these disasters and mitigate the overwhelming affects. As a result they are left with a significant death toll, billions of dollars in damages, and maybe one or two clean bathtubs.

Clemens, S. (2005, August, 30). Forbes Magazine. “Safest And Least Safe Places In The U.S.”.
Retrieved from:
Mileti, D. (1999). Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States.
Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press and the Joseph Henry Press.

A Pizza Saved His Life by Stefan McCabe

Stefan McCabe
PHS 100
Warner Pacific College
June,20 2011

I like to brag about the fact that a pizza saved my life. In October of 1989, I was living in the Santa Cruz mountains. It was near dinner time, and I had been riding my tricycle up and down a pathway next to my house. I remembered that my mother was baking a pizza in the oven, so I left my tricycle to look at the oven inside. As I was standing in front of the oven in anticipation, I was knocked off my feet by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake. I (a 3 year old at the time) freaked out for a moment and then ran outside to our open lawn. Thankfully nobody in our family was hurt. I was left, though, with a small scar on my upper right arm. As the wreckage was removed, my father found my tricycle. The wall that was next to the pathway had fallen directly on to the tricycle. My dad called it a "red pancake". As I said before, a pizza saved my life.
Earthquakes can be caused by several things. I have personally experienced 2 of these causes. They can be caused by dislocations of the earth's crust, volcanic eruptions, fallen trees (huge ones), and even manmade explosions. Most are caused, though, by movement of the earth's crust. " The crust may first bend and then, when the stress exceeds the strength of the rocks, break and "snap" to a new position. In the process of breaking, vibrations called "seismic waves" are generated. These waves travel outward from the source of the earthquake along the surface and through the Earth at varying speeds depending on the material through which they move. Some of the vibrations are of high enough frequency to be audible, while others are of very low frequency. These vibrations cause the entire planet to quiver or ring like a bell or tuning fork" (Watson & Watson).
There are some basic, critical, steps to take in preparation for earthquakes. The first is to check through your house or business for possible hazards. Heavy or valuable items should remain secured if they are stored in a high location; furniture, such as bookshelves, should be fastened to the wall; kitchen cabinets should be latched or magnetically closed; heavy items in the garage should be secured, if they are left up high, to prevent auto damage. The second is to create a plan of action. Learn the safe places to take cover; create a meeting place, put together a medical and supply kit, know where your electrical and gas shutoffs are. The third step is to survey the structural integrity of the house or office, and make the necessary repairs or supports (Putting Down Roots In Earthquake Country).
Since the earthquake/tsunami incident in Japan, many geologist have predicted either a large earthquake in either the Cascadia Subduction Zone or along the San Andreas fault line. Some of their evidence is compelling, but it is impossible to prepare for these kinds of disasters. The focus, I believe, should be on preparedness and awareness of what earthquakes are and how they should reacted upon.

Putting Down Roots In Earthquake Country. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2011, from Earthquake Country:
Watson, J., & Watson, K. (n.d.). How Earthquakes Happen. Retrieved June 20, 2011, from U.S. Geological Survey:

Floods by Pat Holzbach

Impact of Water on Shockoe Bottom
Pat Holzbach
Environmental Studies, PHS 100A
Warner Pacific College
June 21, 2011

Impact of Water on Shockoe Bottom
In the early 1600s, Shockoe Bottom, one of the oldest neighborhoods of Richmond, Virginia, was a trading post. Appropriately named, Shockoe Bottom is the lowest point on the north side of the river, with hills on three sides of it. The Shockoe Bottom watershed, a 65-acre sub-basin, is located within the Shockoe Creek watershed, Richmond’s largest at 8,000 acres. (Steindel, Stone, Liang, Cronin, Maisch, 2006) Located on the James River, with Shockoe Creek running through it, it was a prime location for the ship trade. While the James River begins in the Blue Ridge Mountains (part of Earth’s oldest mountain range), and flows to the Chesapeake Bay, Richmond marks the furthest inland point that ships can travel because of the river falls. It was an ideal location for water commerce.
In 1785, George Washington surveyed the area for canals to be built, which further enhanced the area’s importance as a trade center. Warehouses and industrial buildings sprang up along the river banks. As the city grew, in 1850s Shockoe Creek was directed underground, through a series of arches, draining into the James River. (Harris, 2009)
It remained an important trade center until 1865, when, at the end of the Civil War, the area was burned. Buildings crumbled, and business was non-existent, marking the end of an era. In 1880, the canals were sold to the railroads, and the age of railroads and automobiles changed the trajectory of this river-side Shockoe Bottom. (A brief history, 2011)
Then, in the 1960s, the Clean Water Act spurred the clean up of the James River, bringing new life to the neighborhood. Old factories and refurbished warehouses became stylish restaurants, galleries and shops. (A brief history, 2011) Visitors enjoyed walking along the cobblestone streets, with little thought of the antiquated drainage system just below.
The flood of August 2004 brought to light the deterioration of the 150 year-old system.
On Monday, August 30, remnants of Hurricane Gaston, now classified as a tropical storm, dropped 14 inches of water over Shockoe Bottom in just a few hours. (Weber, no date) FEMA reported that water rose from 6 inches to 5 feet in only 20 minutes. (FEMA, 2004)
Receiving the run-off from surrounding hills, flooding in Shockoe Bottom reached 12 feet, causing $20 million in damage, and killing eight people. Everyone, including weather forecasters, was caught by surprise.
Compounding the problem was the existence of the flood wall, completed in 1994 and ranging up to 30 feet in height. (City of Richmond, 2011)
This wall runs along the James River to protect businesses and homes from the overflooding river. This flood wall served as a bowl-like barrier to keep the rainfall from flowing into the river.
In 2009, businesses in Shockoe Bottom sued the City of Richmond for damages and loss of profit, based on their findings below: (Harris, 2009)
• The creek bed of Shockoe Creek, directed underground in the 1850s, had filled with material, and the series of arches had become clogged, and were no longer able to handle heavy rains and disperse them to the James River. In 1926, an underground concrete viaduct replaced the creek bed. At the end of the viaduct was built a large concrete holding area, with a control gate to prevent overloading the sewer system. When the storm came, the gate was shut, and in fact, had rusted shut.
• Water that should have flowed through the viaduct was forced out of the sewers and into the streets, bringing with it much of the litter and debris that had accumulated since it was completed in 1927. The system had not been inspected since it was built.
• The flood wall has several pumping stations designed to pump water back into the James River should a flood occur. One of the pumping stations, the one closest to Shockoe Bottom, was never activated, as it had no electrical service connected to it.
• The Shockoe Retention Basin, a man-made basin with a 50-million-gallon capacity, was full at the time of the downpour. While the full extent of the storm could not have been predicted, knowing that a tropical storm was eminent should have been enough indicator to the City of Richmond to empty the basin.
Between 2004 and 2008, the City of Richmond spent $3.7 million on projects to improve the system: (Petriello, 2010)
• Approximately 100 curb inlets were added or modified (enlarged or re-located), and additional pipes were added.
• Three new gate structures were added to the sewer system, and the key areas of the system at the lowest points were redesigned.
• The Shockoe Retention Basin was restored as a flow equalizer, able to hold millions of gallons of water from Shockoe Bottom. During the restoration, 25,000 cubic yards of sediment and overgrowth from years of neglect were removed.
• An early warning system was installed. (Jones, 2010)
While these improvements are too late for some businesses that never recovered from the flood of 2004, they are a step in right direction to securing the future of one of Richmond’s most historic areas, and helping to assure that the future impact of water on this area is a positive one.

A brief history and present description of the historic district of Shockoe Slip and Bottom in Richmond Virginia. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from
City of Richmond (2011). Flood wall park. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from
FEMA (November 4, 2004). Raising the floor keeps Richmond, Virginia business dry during tropical storm Gaston flood. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from
Harris, Al (August 28, 2009). Shockoe businesses sue city for $31 million. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from
Jones, S. (August 31, 2010) Remembering Gaston. Retrieved June 19, 2011, from,0,785309.story
Petriello, G. (2010). Improvements to Shockoe Bottom for this hurricane season. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from
Steidel, R., Stone, Rb., Liang, L., Cronin, E., Maisch, F., 2006) Downtown shall not flood again. Retrieved June 19, 2011, from
Weber, Ken (no date). “Historic” flood of 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from

Friday, June 17, 2011

Oregons Wildlife and Endangered Species Act by Brandi Rubio

Environmental Studies PHS 100A
Warner Pacific College
June 15, 2011

Oregon has many different regulations that are designed to protect the environment. These regulations range from air quality regulations, to agriculture quality management. One of the most controversial and widely known regulations is that State Wildlife Protection law.
Oregon State wildlife laws are administered by the Oregon State Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with The Oregon Fish and Wildlife Commission. Wildlife can be anything from fish, birds, amphibians and reptiles, to wild mammals. Different threatened species are classified as any native wildlife that the Fish and Wildlife Commission deems is likely to become an endangered species in the future, or any wildlife species that is listed as a threatened species pursuant to the Federal Endangered Species Act. An endangered species is defined as any native wildlife determined by the Fish and Wildlife Commission to be in danger of extinction or listed as endangered un the Federal Endangered Species Act.
In Oregon, the law states that no person can hunt or trap wildlife without a valid license, tag or permit. Endangered species that are defined as wildlife cannot be hunted trapped or killed without a license. Some animals that are classified as endangered species in Oregon are; the Northern Spotted Owl, the Gray Wolf, Columbian White Tailed Deer, the Bald Eagle, Pygmy Rabbit, and the Roosevelt Elk.
For many years, our environmental regulations have been updated and amended to affect the decline of certain wildlife in Oregon. Oregon's diverse and beautiful landscape provides a home for a diversity of fish and wildlife, from the forests to the lakes and wetland, thousands of different and amazing species depend on our land, they need water for rest, food for their young and ultimately the neccesities to survive.

In the state of Oregon, which has played an active role in Environmental Protection for many years, the goal is to protect and restore Oregons natural heritage and to ensure that our future generations will have the chance to fish, see bald eagles, and hear the animals of the wild calling to their mates.
So what can we do to help contribute to the masses? According to the Oregon Wildlife Division, their strategy is to believe in the growing recognition among Oregonians that the work of conserving our native habitats and species belongs to each and every one of us. There are a few groups out there that refuse to do so, because they believe that the lands purpose it to be consumed and used by us. In order to achieve long-term fish and wildlife conservation, we must all work together across Oregon.
One way that congress is helping to contribute is by passing bills worth millions that contribute to sustaining our environment and protecting our wildlife. In 2008, Congress passed a bill that included $73.8 million for State Wildlife Grants. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife received about $1 million dollars to put to work in the state of Oregon.
To quote a very intelligent man, Wallace Stegner, "How much wilderness do the wilderness lovers want? asked those who would mine and dig and cut and dam in such sanctuary spots as these. The answer is easy: Enough so that there will be in the years ahead a little relief, a little quiet, a little relaxation, for any of our increasing millions who need and want it". (1995, This is Dinosaur)


www.nasda,org "Environmental Laws Affecting Agricultures.

Environmental Regulations and Safety by Judy Kiepke

Workplace Safety
Environmental Studies
PHS 100A
Judy Kiepke
Professor David Terrell Ph. D.
Warner Pacific College
June, 14th. 2011

Safety does not just happen, it comes with a cost. I work for manufacturing industry that believes and teaches safety if number one. Today we have safety meetings, safety training and regulations in every area of our job. WAC 296-800-11005 states employers are responsible to provide a workplace free from recognized hazards (Industries, 210). Sometimes you wonder at what point did they recognized a safety hazard. We all can think of areas where we were exposed to chemical and toxins without being aware of potential dangers in times past. The lead in solder and the cleaners used to clean the circuit boards. I so remember not even being concerned as I stuck my hands in the solvent. This was maybe 20 years ago. Now I am sure today they use gloves. .
We have many long time employees who lost some of their hearing from being exposed to loud noises over the years of working alongside of noisy machinery before regulations were set or followed. Now our company brings the hearing van yearly testing our hearing to record any hearing loss. We have several different ear plug stations and any area that requires earplugs is clearly marked. Who’s responsibility for that in-between time that a hazard is being recognized? Employers are responsible but as employees we need to always be aware of safety and this is what my employer trains employees to do.
I am very thankful to have all the regulations in place to protect me and looking at my responsibility WAC 296-800-1205 states as an employee I am to study and follow all safe practices that apply to their work. Help to eliminate on the job injuries and illness and apply the principles of accident protective equipment as required by my employer (Industries, 210). It is quite interesting to see the many employer and employee responsibilities as recorded with 11 digit numbers. You virtually could spend days looking through the regulations as they are broke down into many different areas of safety (Industries, 210).
Part of safety is awareness, and training. We are now being trained on how to recognize safety and that as we work we need to be aware of hazards. It is being taught to us to think safety. We are to STOP for each other in the DuPont training classes. We are to work safely, watch others work safely and learn how to prevent injuries to ourselves and other. We are to look for conditions and actions that cause or prevent injuries (Pont, 2008). We are given time to learn about safety and prevent incidents and injuries. We are expected to remain committed to working safely. Our STOP training principles are teaching us to take positive actions to develop safety awareness (Pont, 2008).
STOP for each other created by DuPont is a good step between the hazards of today and tomorrow. It is not the only step but is does help to bring about safety awareness. This does come with a cost. The cost of workplace injuries is expensive and increases the cost of doing business. $50,000.00 is the average cost of a back injury, $62,000.00 for slip and fall injuries and $40,000.00 for a Carpal Tunnel or Repetitive Motion Injury. The indirect cost are higher including loss of productivity, re-training, hiring new employees, administrative time, repair and replacement of equipment, etc (CA/OSHA, 2011).
Type of Injury Average Medical Cost Average Indemnity Cost Total Average Cost
Back Injuries $22,324 $26,959 $49,283
Slip & Fall Injuries $24,035 $37,969 $62,004
Carpal Tunnel / Repetitive Motion Injuries $17,696 $22,013 $39,709

The cost for an unsafe workplace can involve many other costs but not limited to higher insurance cost, workman compensation costs and even including legal issues when regulations are not followed and an accident is blamed on this.
I will also tell you that having a safe environment in a manufacturer company also has many cost too. I am not involved with budgets but just looking at what I know to be costs would include but not be limited to the following. The cost of training is not cheap. We have ongoing training all the time. The cost of the STOP training alone would be expensive. Every member of our company of over 500 people was put through this training. Not only are the cost of books and supplies quite expensive but we have the time spent doing this. We spent four hours in class and are expected to take fifteen minutes to a half an hour observing a job or process and filling out STOP cards from what we observe. We are all trained in this procedure. It takes time and then it is keyed into a computer and analyzed.
We are always looking for that new hazard. We are feeling out the accident near miss paperwork. In our company if you want something done you put a safety twist on it and it will be done. It does not get lost on a desk. We have a production manger that believes with everything he says is that “all accidents can be prevented”. If it means slowing down or thinking safely or taking time to do what we have learned we do it. It is not a suggestion but way of working that is supported on our company which includes a cost. They pay for safety equipment. They pay for ergonomic technology. Every job is studied for ergonomic correctness. I remember getting saddle like chairs that took some getting used to. That was a while ago and new technology has come along later. They rotate often and stretch before work and in the middle of the day.
Talking to employees that have problems hearing or injuries to limbs I’m happy to say that though a dedication to safety these types of injuries are very rare unlike 30 years ago. We work in a clean and well regulated safe workplace. Our costs for unsafe actions are minimal. As an employee I am more aware of safety. Knowledge about chemicals, air pollution and what hurts our bodies is always being examined thought science. Regulations help us be aware of safety. Sometimes we may feel over regulated but when being responsible for a large group of people you have to have some rules that make us safe. Sometimes it get time consuming in a busy environment to STOP and do what we are asked but when you think of the benefits to working in a safe environment I am happy to do it. I do not want to come to the end of my working career and not be able to hear my grandkids say simple words or see the sunset that goes over the mountain because I damaged my eyesight in some way. Safety first will help me achieve this.

OSHA. (2011, 06 06). public safety. Retrieved 06 14, 2011, from CA.Gov:
Industries, W. D. (210, 07 01). Safety and Health Core Rules. Retrieved 06 14, 2011, from Labor and Indusries (L&I) Washington State:
Pont, E. D. (2008). Stop For Each Other. Dupont Safety Resources (p. 22). Virginia Beach, VA: Vendor Developed Single - Topic - Classroom Training.

The Homestead Act by Lisa Griggs

Environmental Studies
PHS 100A
Lisa L. Griggs
Warner Pacific College
June 16, 2011

“We (Blackfeet) have always sought these powers, believing the life of the land and our own lives were irrevocably bound and intertwined.” ( One of North American’s largest ecosystems is the grasslands that once stretched from the Rocky Mountains and as far East to the Mississippi River with over 250 different types of grass, small game animals like the black footed ferret, foxes, and prairie dogs could be found. Large game animal roam in larger number from mule tailed deer, elk and buffalo. Buffalo before the 1800’s ranged in the millions were an indicator of prairie health the sheer size and weight helped cultivate the prairie grounds.
The fate of the grasslands would be reshaped considerably in the 1860’s with the passage of Homestead Act. This Act brought settlers in droves from the East at a chance to own acres of land. Soon the native grasses and plants were replaced for acres of corn, wheat fields: water ways were divertive and irrigation systems were installed. Once, where the buffalo roamed freely settlers were placed by miles of fences keep large herds of cattle and other non-native livestock enclosed.
Soon buffalo were being replaced by cattle; the cattle would overgraze the native grasses, break legs when the feel into prairie dogs holes, and ranchers would loss thousands more to the harsh winters. Cattle were not bread to live on the open grasslands as the buffalo that face the winter storms head on.
Not only where the American Indians competing with the settlers but the trappers, traders and commercial hunters who’s only interest was the hide of the buffalo and left the meat to rot. The movement west included the expansion of the railroads who offered “killing” contest shooting as many buffalo possible from the windows of the train. This was a slaughter of thousands of buffalo where the buffalo where left to rot.
The Great Plains is the homelands of hundreds of American Indian tribes, and buffalo were also the staple of life for many of the Plains Indian, was a main source of food, culture and tradition. The Indians felt the encroachment of the settlers, the wastefulness of commercial hunters, soon the tension and conflict between the settlers and Indians grew.
Congressional members saw the American Indians as nuisances one Congressman James Throckmorton of Texas has been quoted as saying “it would be a great step forward in the civilization of the Indians and the preservation of peace on the border if there was not a buffalo in existence.” ( Soon the military was asked to step in to help “easy” the tension between the resisting American Indians. The military personnel were ordered to kill the buffalo; the buffalo were slaughter by the millions not as food but as a way to eliminate American Indians.
Buffalo herds that once ranged in the millions soon were on the brink of extinct with a few thousand remaining after the slaughter. The few thousand buffalo that did survive the slaughter found refuge in the valleys of what is now known as Yellowstone National Park.
Today, Yellowstone is a model of health of what the grasslands of the Plains once were. Federal, State and Tribal governments are working together to restore the grasslands and buffalo to a natural state. Several Tribes belong to cooperative and are working at breeding and restoring buffalo to the Plains. Buffalo need large amounts of land to roam and graze, using lands on reservations, wildlife refuges, and national parks. “In his book Ecology and Economics of the Great Plains, Daniel Licht proposes creating "ecoreserves" by buying out struggling farmers, noting that reserves make better economic and environmental sense than costly farm subsidies. All told, Licht's proposed refuges would cover more than 27,000 square miles; an area he says could support 25,000 buffalo, 300 wolves, 10,000 elk, 15,000 mule deer, and over a million prairie dogs.” (LaDuke, Winonna)
“In Montana, Club volunteers are working with tribes and federal land managers to dedicate a quarter-million-acre tract of public land, adjacent to the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, to bison and other prairie species. Special protection, such as national monument status, could provide what national board member Jennifer Ferenstein calls "a connector between ecologically intact areas" that would give buffalo room to run--and Americans a living link to their country's natural history.” (LaDuke, Winonna) Restoring the grasslands helps create a healthy prairie a place that people will want to visit like Yellowstone and build, teach and learn about cultural heritage.

Licht, Daniel S., Ecology and Economics of the Great Plains (Our Sustainable Future), 1997,

University of Nebraska Press

LaDuke Winona "Buffalo nation - environmental benefits of American bison and efforts to

restore them to the Great Plains". Sierra. 14 Jun, 2011. Retrieved from

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). American Buffalo: Spirit of a Nation, 2009, Retrieved, June

13, 2011 from

nation/introduction/2183/, Blackfeet Nation, A Proud Past, A

Bright Future website, Retrieved June 16, 2011

Environmental Regulations by Colleen DeShazer

PHS 100 A
Warner Pacific College
June 16, 2011

Environmental regulations affect us every day of our lives. From the time we get up in the morning to the time that we turn off the lights at night. Every aspect of our daily lives is regulated and it always costs us money. Since 2009 when Obama took office the United States Environmental Protection Agency has finalized 928 new rules and proposed 703 others. All of this regulation comes with a price as well that costs the regulated communities millions and in some cases billions of dollars. At this time the Environmental Protection Agency is not required to utilize any form of economic impact analysis when implementing rules. The costs that are associated with the implementation of new regulation cannot be easily absorbed in some industry sectors and in most cases is passed on to the consumers. In some cases over regulation or costly regulation can make doing business in the United States so cost prohibitive that companies chose to send our jobs overseas.
Environmental regulation is a necessary part of our culture and has most certainly assisted us in correcting significant public health issues as well as correcting and preserving the biodiversity in our communities. Clean air and water regulation that was implemented in the 1970’s has brought life back to polluted waterways and brought safer water into our communities. However, as with most government agencies is it possible that the EPA has become an out of control governmental giant that is simply implementing new regulation to create new sources of revenue to sustain the EPA’s administrative growth? The EPA’s budget increased 34% from 2009 to 2010 to an astounding $10.3 billion dollars. Approximately $13 million dollars of this is set aside for led clean up in the Chesapeake Bay. Efforts to clean up this site have been on- going for over 25 years and have cost taxpayers billions of dollars without any successful outcomes. Shouldn’t we be spending these valuable dollars elsewhere?

The economic impacts are an integral piece of the environmental regulatory process. Regulation is necessary but only when the benefits of regulation outweigh the harm. Regulation has to be realistic in the sense that it is not created for political purposes or “feel good” reasons, meaning symbolism over substance. Regulation needs to serve a true public purpose one that accounts for public health, long term health of our environment our ecosystems and biodiversity as well as managing economic impacts to our economy. If we have a productive economy that isn’t being regulated out of business and we allow business to flourish in an environmentally responsible manner there will be more resources available to solve our environmental problems. However, if you regulate our economy into non-existence where then will the money come from to solve our economic problems? Simply regulation is a necessary part of doing business in our country and abroad, however over-regulation that stifles the economy, causes loss of jobs and loss of capital injections into our economy that does not clearly solve our major long term environmental problems is nothing more than government growing more government.

Oregon State Land Conservation and Development Department:
Withgott, J., & Bennan, S. (2010) Environment: The Science Behind the Stories (4th ed.) New
York. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. ISBN: 13: 978-0-321-71534--0