Thursday, February 9, 2012

A message from Jorge Meléndez

Peace in Christ,

Why is there so much confusion in the world? I believe the main reason is because we fight a spiritual war (Ephesians 6:12). Within the spiritual war that we fight, we have an enemy who employs “divide and conquer” tactics that help confusion and destroy individuals in many ways. One of the ways that the enemy conquers is by attacking spiritual knowledge.

The LORD said through his prophet Hosea “my people are destroyed for the lack of knowledge” (Hosea 4:6), not that Israel had no access to knowledge; rather they chose to ignore it. The lack of Biblical knowledge is among the greatest threats to Christianity today. For this reason, consistent Bible study and seeking of the LORD with a sincere heart is important. It is necessary that we take the time to read and reread the Bible as often as we can while doing it with patience and not rushing through it, take time to consider every word. By taking time to carefully study the Bible you’ll find what the LORD says about many of the subjects that we face each and every day.

There are many subjects that impact our lives: marriage, children, family, sex, etc.. When faced with the question, “what should I do in this situation?” It is important that your reasoning be a Biblical one (Psalm 111:10), this essential element will help you know where to start and where to go (Psalms 119:105).

There exists many self help books, articles, blogs, etc., but what can really help you? Whether you’re going through something or considering something, see what the Bible says about the subject and you’ll be at a great starting point. Some might say that the Bible does not touch on every subject that we face in the 21st century; however, the essence of every subject is found in the Scriptures, precisely.

Continue your Bible reading and combine it with prayer, fasting, and church attendance and by doing so you will maintain a healthy Biblical perspective, a perspective that will bring great blessings to you and those around you.

Your brother in the faith,

Jorge Meléndez

Thursday, February 2, 2012

Glenn Rice's Reflection about the future

PHS100A Environmental Studies
Warner Pacific College

February 2, 2012

A broad essay topic can be very helpful for a student who struggles for an idea to fill a page, however a broad topic can also lead to some difficulty about how to associate it with something specific. The topic for this paper is very broad. I work within a micro-culture where any events that occur on a global scale are irrelevant to their concerns at the local level. Thus, articulating how classroom instruction relates to my everyday life and my professional career choice will be challenging.

As has been touched upon in our coursework, local communities cannot isolate themselves from the issues of global environmentalism. Blissful ignorance is no defense against large-scale environmental degradation. Eventually, and to an ever-larger degree, local communities must adapt to global environmental change – even as they are faced with their own environmental challenges.

In an effort to narrow the focus on how environmental issues affect me personally, I will speak of the sadness and anger that I feel toward the mindless profit-driven callousness with which global corporations treat the environment. As an example, rain forests destruction related to the raising of cattle in the forested areas of South America to produce hamburger meat for worldwide consumption. This ongoing tragedy continues to this day – even as the involved corporate entities state that they no longer buy hamburger meat from the most recently deforested areas (Cummins, 1999). The issue of palm oil as an ingredient in processed foods, cosmetics, and medicines (generally for first-world consumption) is quickly destroying the habitat of orangutans in Malaysia – in particular the island of Borneo (Block, 2009). These environmental issues – of which few people are aware – are examples of habitat destruction that should be of great concern down to the level of the individual consumer.

In a Google search to collect information on these topics, the first three pages were sites for the meat and palm oil industries defending their practices. Additionally, the current system of commercial advertising in media allows moneyed interests to withhold advertising dollars if any negative reporting about their products should air. Therefore, the questions posed about environmental control, clean up, and monitoring in many instances becomes moot as powerful corporations choose bottom-line economics over responsible stewardship over their environmental holdings and the lands over which they have great influence. This points out how interests with much to gain from the products in question stand in the way of society’s ability to confront irresponsible product development and environmental behavior.

These global issues can be – by definition – overwhelming to individuals. There already exist a number of important environmental concerns to occupy local jurisdictions. Not only do we have to worry ourselves over which products are responsible choices to purchase, but also how we should dispose of the accursed leftover hamburger or potato chip after its procurement. Here in Portland, where environmental awareness is higher than in most municipalities, we have done well to keep ourselves somewhat abreast of environmental issues. Almost every Portlander knows where their water comes from, when sewage spills into the Willamette occur, or where their local farmer’s market is. We take civic pride in our knowledge of these issues, and defend our resources with vigor. However, the collapse of the economy is forcing Portlanders to make choices that they wish they did not have to make.

The middle class, where I feel the greatest awareness of these issues exist, has been so pinched by the poor economy that we have been forced to choose between using limited financial resources to maintain our personal standard of living, or to make socially and environmentally responsible purchases for the protection of our shared civic resources. Sadly, my family made the choice to take a fallback position that would stabilize our finances and keep our family afloat, rather than stand firm with our choice to limit our purchases to within the community. Many other families like ours have made this frustrating choice.

Now, a curmudgeon such as I might see (as I have) that the current economical state of affairs is in part a cynical ploy by moneyed interests to keep the populace off-balance. Within a state of fear and chaos there will be less resistance against their unstated goal to place financial priorities over the fate of the environment. Global awareness of the unsustainable natural resource extraction methods that large corporations use – has interfered greatly with their ability to profit from their mismanagement. My cynicism is reinforced by the seemingly intentional lack of interest many large corporations have for the economic and environmental concerns of society as a whole. The “one percenters” who would be most able to have a positive influence upon this dysfunctional situation seem unconcerned with how deeply their profit motives have hurt the very societies that they use to acquire greater wealth.

So yes, I am affected by a general lack of interest in global environmental affairs. The connection between these issues for me is not only physical (higher food, fuel, and fewer available funds for the commons) but also emotional. My beautiful children will inherit this ever-expanding war between greedy self-interest and the necessarily expensive good stewardship of the planet. Nevertheless, how does this affect my of choice of career and my ability to fulfill the obligations to my profession? As a student of human-development and as a substance-abuse counselor in training, the connections between my career choice and environmental stewardship are quite indirect. However, as I have mentioned several times in this missive, the poor attention to the common interests of human survival directly affects me – and my clients.

Substance abuse is a condition that can easily plague anyone – and without prejudice. However, substance abuse disproportionately affects the poor and homeless, and this is where the connection can be made between my studies and resource use. Without any doubt, the major concerns of the homeless are food and shelter however, there are the critical peripheral issues of mental health and substance abuse, which are more often than not – co-occurring disorders. Even those with the intellectual wherewithal to gain access to food and shelter have difficulty securing placements, and thus, you have developments such as Dignity Village in Northeast Portland, and the Occupy Portland inspired, Right 2 Survive and Right 2 Dream Too encampments downtown. Society, in general, still believes that if one is homeless, there are shelters in which to stay – and that there is no need to sleep on the streets. However, according to a recent homeless count, there are 1700 people who must sleep outside in Portland area. A Salvation Army winter warming center that had been scheduled to open, has been unable to do so. City Team Ministries, charges $5 for a bed, and the Portland Rescue Mission uses a lottery system to distribute beds. Clearly, these facilities are too few, regularly full, and as a result, people must be routinely turned away (Right 2 Survive, 2011).

Some solutions that homeless organizations are no doubt attempting to implement, but are rarely ever heard about, is the use of idle open spaces to grow food for neighborhoods, later allowing gleaners to harvest the excess to share with the homeless. Efforts to this end have been made by volunteer organizations such as TeamWorks that coordinate like-minded groups such as farmers markets, fruit growers, local farms, and supermarkets (Hands On, 2009).

Attempts have been made to acquire unoccupied or foreclosed upon homes to refurbish into low-income housing – in most cases by including the re-use of discarded building materials. These efforts are not only being accomplished by vanguard organizations such as Habitat for Humanity, but also other groups – local and national. Central City Concern in Portland continues to work hard at renovating downtown properties for use as transitional housing (CCC, 2006). Various local planning commissions are attempting to share success stories for use in other communities and governmental organizations (Cohen, & Wardrip, 2011). On the national level, H.R. 4868, The Housing Preservation, and Tenant Protection Act was debated in Congress to help “create a voluntary program to encourage the transfer of assisted rental properties to preservation-oriented owners” (Halliday, 2010).

Nevertheless, once again, it comes down to money. Housing that becomes available is usually from the result of foreclosure, so for every home that is repossessed, there is another homeless family. Burdens upon states and local governments to fund “vital” programs leave little money for any homeless and hunger projects alluded to here. Therefore, these issues remain very emotional issues for me; for there is little else that I can do other than assist the struggling multitudes – individual-by-individual.

Perhaps society will at long last recognize that the appropriation and amassment of wealth is nothing more than self-serving greed and not at all a human quality to be admired. Hoarding excess material and financial resources that might be used to care for our fellow citizens that are in need is a spiritual tragedy. Hoarding our emotional resources is an illness of the spirit that leaves our souls empty. We can say that environmental destruction is merely a symptom of a collective society that places a greater value upon their own wants than they do their fellow human beings. Even in the face of any potential global environmental tragedy, we can still take meaningful action to create change locally, by praying with all of our might, speaking out against injustice wherever we see it, and putting the question to those who claim to be looking out for our best interests.

Block, Ben. (2009). Global Palm Oil Demand Fueling Deforestation. Worldwatch Institute. Retrieved from:

Central City Concern (CCC), (2006). Case Study: Comprehensive Planning and Neighborhood Revitalization. Enterprise Community Partners, Inc. Retrieved from: a=v&…

Cohen, R., and Wardrip, K. (2011). The Economic & Fiscal Benefits of Affordable Housing. Planning Commissioners Journal. August 01, 2011. Retrieved from:

Cummins, R. (1999). Fast Food Chains, Beef Overconsumption, and Deforestation: The Case of Guatemala and Costa Rica. Retrieved from:

Halliday, Toby. (2010). Testimony for H.R. 4868, the Housing Preservation, and Tenant Protection Act.

Subcommittee on Housing and Community Opportunity, House Committee on Financial Services. March 24, 2010. Retrieved from: a=v&…

Hands On Greater Portland. (2009). TeamWorks: Linking Local Food & Food Security. Hands-on Connect – For Volunteers. Retrieved from:

Right 2 Survive PDX. (2011). Support of Occupy Portland. Right 2 Survive & Right 2 Dream Too. Retrieved from:

Future Development and Sustainability by Tammy L. Hooper

PHS 100A, Environmental Studies
Warner Pacific University

February 1, 2012

Future Development and Sustainability

Changes needed in our society to confront future development and sustainability are modifications in our “behaviors, institutions, and technologies” (Brennan, 2011, p. 677). Sustainability as defined by The United Nations (UN) is “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs” (United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, 2009). The UN further states that this “requires the integration of its economic, environmental and social components at all levels by continuous dialogue and action in global partnership.” So we need to collectively find a way to balance environmental goals, social goals and economic goals. According to the World Conservation Union we are currently out of balance in these areas and top heavy in economic and social goals and deficient in realistic and working environmental goals (Resources, 2006). The World Conservation Union remarks “development decisions by governments, businesses and other actors do allow trade-offs and put greatest emphasis on the economy above other dimensions of sustainability. This is a major reason why the environment continues to be degraded and development does not achieve desirable equity goals.” The report goes on to say that the integration of economic, environmental and social components cannot be treated equally because the economy is an “institution that emerges from society” and that they are virtually one and the same as society creates rules to mediate the exchange of goods or value (Resources, 2006). The environment on the other hand is not created by society and trade offs are limited in regards to human activity.

In 1992, Edward Wilson noted that human activities have increased 'background' extinction rates by between 100 and 10,000 times. 'We are’, he said, ‘in the midst of one of the great extinction spasms of geological history” (Resources, 2006). The Millennium Assessment (MA) which was implemented by UN secretary Kofi Annan in 2000, “to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and the scientific basis for action needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being makes quite clear that not only does the level of poverty remain high, but inequality is growing” (Overview of the Milliennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). The main finding of the MA were that in the last 50 years humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly than at any other time in history. This has been due to the rising demand for food, water, timber, fiber and fuel (Overview of the Milliennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). These changes have been for human gain and environmental loss which has aggravated poverty for some peoples. This in itself diminishes sustainability for future generations. There needs to be significant changes in policies, institutions and practices for measurable sustainability to occur.

It appears that what we have been doing regarding sustainability isn’t working and to try and fix a broken system would just be wasting time and depleting our resources even more. There needs to be new ways of thinking and a doing away with “business as usual” (Resources, 2006). One thing to look at is our ravenous consumption appetite and developing awareness that our production systems are flawed. Advertising and media which are so powerful globally actually promote the opposite view, that production and consumption are good and favorable. This promotion can cause people to remain ignorant of the fact that we have limited natural resources and that we cannot indefinitely continue to consume goods and certain services at our current level. This new look at sustainability must include “both the human needs and aspirations of the poor of developing world, and the over-consumption in the industrialized world (Resources, 2006). There needs to be reeducation to the myth that if we remove a stress to an ecological system then it will simply renew itself. This myth gives humans comfort that the environment will always support us therefore ensuring our existence indefinitely. This is simply not the truth and can be plainly seen with some education from knowledgeable sources in our communities, cities, states, internationally and globally. There also needs to also be education regarding the poverty inflicted on certain groups of people due to the exhaustive use of natural resources and the rapid and continued expand of industrialism.

The World Conservation Union states “Sustainability needs to be made the basis of a new understanding of human aspiration and achievement. The relevant metric of sustainability is ‘the production of human wellbeing (not necessarily material goods) per unit of extraction from or imposition upon nature” (Resources, 2006). In fact, the United Nations is hosting a High Level Meeting on Happiness and Wellbeing: Defining a New Economic Paradigm in New York on April 2, 2012. The UN prefaces this meeting on their website by stating “The world is at a crossroads. The future of mankind and the planet is at stake” (Happiness and Wellbeing). Jigmi Y. Thinley, Prime Minister, Royal Government of Bhutan states:

Our global economic system is in rapid melt-down, starting with the financial collapse of 2008 and now manifesting in Europe’s severe and spreading debt crisis. That economic system, based on the totally unsustainable premise of limitless growth on a finite planet, is the direct cause of the very policies that the IEA says are leading us to a calamitous end as evident in the growing frequency and magnitude of manmade and natural disasters. And that economic system has produced ever widening inequities, with 20% of the world’s people now consuming 86% of its goods, 84% of its paper, and 87% of its cars, while the poorest 20% consume 1% or less of each and emit only 2% of the world’s greenhouse gases. That gap, coupled with the deep economic crisis, led the International Labour Organization to warn on 30 October that the world faces years of social unrest as economies falter (Happiness and Wellbeing).

The Prime Minister also sees this meeting as an opportunity for international consensus for the creation of sustainability based economic paradigm with national accounting systems and to slow resource degradation and to support and protect the world’s most vulnerable peoples. It is planned that key representative leaders from developed and developing nations, along with leading economists, scientists, and civil society and spiritual leaders, come together to issue a call at the UN on 2nd April for a sustainability-based economic development paradigm to replace the current system. It is thought that this project would be worked on over the next year and then would be available for implementation on a voluntary basis in national policy.

How is my major in human development affected by environmental issues? Malnutrition, inadequate water supply and environmental pollution pose serious problems to human health. From an environmental perspective shortage of arable land and water stress are important drivers for food vulnerability. Unsafe drinking water and indoor air pollution are the most serious environmental offenders, in view of current loss of human health (Outstanding Environmental Issues for Human Development, 2005). According to the 2011 Human Development Report, “power imbalances and gender inequalities at the national level are linked to reduced access to clean water and improved sanitation, land degradation and deaths due to indoor and outdoor air pollution, amplifying the effects associated with income disparities (Human Development Report 2011 Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All, 2011). Equal access to water, energy, healthcare, reproductive care and sanitation could help sustainability and human development. It is further stated that “Poor and disadvantaged people suffer most from environmental degradation” (Human Development Report 2011 Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All, 2011) and I have certainly found that to be true in the work I do with low income women and children. Most of the women I work with do not have a high school diploma or a GED and little work history. Most of the women are in their early to mid thirties and have at least two children if not four or five that they cannot support financially. Child care is expensive and even more so if you have more than one child so often attending college or taking classes to obtain a GED can be very difficult. This forces families to remain on state assistance to meet their needs for medical, dental, food and a small cash assistance. Many of these children have medical issues some quite serious due to drug use while pregnant, domestic violence while pregnant, living in unsanitary conditions, and malnourishment. I have seen children with symptoms that I as a mother would be concerned about, have an extremely difficult time accessing appropriate medical resources or be taken seriously. These women that I work with often do not have any education surrounding healthy eating, exercise, environment, community, and certainly not sustainability. I am fortunate that I have access to 28 women that I can give share this information with. I also have many volunteers, who come to our center and teach the women about health and wellness, growing a garden even in an apartment setting, eating organic or local and reproductive health. Personally, I want to start composting in my backyard this spring and become more involved in my local community, maybe attending a neighborhood meeting. These are some of the ways that I am using this course to be a steward of the environment.


Brennan, S. &. (2011). Environment The Science Behind the Stories. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc.

Happiness and Wellbeing. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2012, from

Human Development Report 2011 Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. (2011). Retrieved January 29, 2012, from United Nations Development Programme:

Outstanding Environmental Issues for Human Development. (2005). Retrieved January 29, 2012, from PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency:

Overview of the Milliennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Retrieved January 29, 2012, from Millenium Assessment Web:

Resources, I. U. (2006, January 29-31). The Future of Sustainability Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from International Union for Nature and Natural Resources:

United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20. (2009). Retrieved January 29, 2012, from UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Sustainable Development:

Future Environmental Issues: Related to Human Development and Teaching by Lori

PHS 100A: Environmental Studies
Warner Pacific College

February 1, 2012

When looking to the future, I can see multiple paths that our society could travel down. We could keep going the way we are now and be certain that things will end badly very soon. We can make small changes and hope for a better future. Or we can make big, albeit expensive changes and have a wonderful future to look forward to. Personally I would choose the last option. However like I said, it would be expensive.

Our society is in desperate need for change. We need better ways to fuel our cars and heat our homes. At the rate we are going, our world as we currently know it will cease to exist in the near future. One way we can change we can make is our dependency on fossil fuels. Easier said than done right? Our society as a whole needs to take a step back and really analyze what we really should be dependent on. We need to be more conscious about how we fuel our cars and consequences of the emissions our cars produce. The amount of greenhouse gases every car produces in a single day is huge.

According the EPA’s website:

“The Fifth U.S. Climate Action Report concluded, in assessing current trends, that greenhouse gas emissions increased by 17 percent from 1990-2007. Over that same time period, the U.S. GDP increased by 65 percent and population increased by 21 percent. The dominant factor affecting U.S. emissions trends is CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, which increased by 21.8 percent over the 17-year period, while methane and nitrous oxide emissions decreased by 5 percent and 1 percent, respectively.”

From reading this, one obvious answer would be population control. Less people, less chance for green house emissions to go up. However, this is something I would never consider as an option.

In order to think about sustainability we need to look at new renewable resources such as wind and solar power. I think that solar power is a great way to go. I would have solar panels on my house if they weren’t quite so expensive. In the long run however, soar power would almost end up paying you. The website “” they detail the cost and rebates to having solar power in Washington State. They also have the details for every state in the country.

“Sample 5kW home solar electricity system cost — Seattle

1. Cost before incentives:$35,000 (5,000Watts*$7/W)

2. 30% Federal Tax Credit: Subtract $10,500

3. Estimated annual production ±5,500kWh*:subtract between $825 and $2,970

4. Avoided Energy Costs: subtract about $440 (cost of electricity increases 5.5%/yr)

5. Years to payback: as fast as 7 years!

Estimated Net Cost Now: between $21,088 and $23,233

Estimated Net Cost in 2020: ¡-$12,437!**

*in most of Washington, a 5kW pv system will produce much more than 5,500kWh of electricity a year. Ask your local installer for more details.

**that’s right. A negative cost. That is the same thing as a payment. In this scenario, the system has paid you to the tune of $12,437.00!!! A 35% ROI! We kid you not.”

So, I guess that solar power would be the way to go for an individual. This might be something that I would seriously consider doing in the future and would help sustain my family.

When it comes to how environmental issues affect my major I am not sure. Because I have not decided what I will be doing when I finish school I haven’t really thought about it much. I have been thinking about the possibility of teaching some day. When thinking in terms of schools and the students, there are many things that need to be done to help schools become more sustainable. The district I am looking at working for already has some good environmental habits in place but they still have quite a ways to go. One thing that I think would help improve the schools immensely is finding a better local source for school food. I have seen the giant semi trucks that go to the school and think of how horrible all the processed food must be. If they could find a local place to get their food from, I think they would be far better off. Another thing would to start thinking about having solar panels on the roof tops. There wouldn’t even have to be a lot of them just a few to help with the massive energy costs.

Personally, I think that a lot of what I have learned from this class would be extremely helpful to the students I would teach. Teaching them about ways they can help the environment and the society they live in would be a great step in the right direction. I hope that I do get the chance to help educate them on this someday.

Resources: retrieved February 1, 2012 retrieved February 1, 2012

Our Society’s Future: Changes We Can Make by Nelson Collazo-Serrano

PHS 100A

Warner Pacific College

February 1, 2012

Our Society’s Future: Changes We Can Make

The raise in our population’s number has placed a black cloud over our society’s natural resources future. A larger number of people in our nation equal a larger use and misuse of our natural resources. The rate that we are using those resources could impact our environment’s future, and dictate how those resources are available to us. Because of the type of society we are live in, individualism plays a major role in the way we approach problems and issues that we face. Individualism is a great tool for individuals to seek out goals for those individual’s advancements in social or personal settings. As a society as a whole, we need to step back from the individualism mentality and worked together to come out with strategies to help the environment.

More than often as individuals we think that there is not much we can do to aid the environment; but on the contrary there are millions of individuals if they think alike more can be accomplished. There are many actions that we can take to prevent or stop the misuse of our natural resources. During recent years, citizens of our country have become more aware of the dangers facing the environment and what that means to our future generations. Our government and the scientific community have come out with suggestions that can alleviate our energy problems. Programs such as The Energy Star are a prime example of a coalition of individuals that can make a difference. This label is placed on energy efficient products to encourage individuals to purchase them, and help the environment by doing so. Some of the issues we should focus on in to save our future and environment are the way we use food, transportation, housing, and energy sources. If we can apply positives changes to our attitude towards the environment, we can ensure a brighter future for generations to come.

“Deforestation is clearing Earth's forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land” (National Geographic, 2012).

To begin a series of changes, we should start with the way our society consumes and harvests food. We do not need to be rocket scientists to figure out that the bigger the size in population, the bigger the need is for food and resources to produce that food. Humans by nature are carnivorous, so we often choose eating meat from other animals. A majority of all the land use for agricultural purpose in our country is used to raise animals for food. The main type of meat comes from livestock. Livestock requires the usage of land which sometimes requires the process of deforestation and habit destruction. Another problem that arises from having such a large need for livestock is the large consumption of water. A large amount of the consumption of water in this country comes of livestock farms use to feed our population. That amount of water is being taken away from human consumption and natural habitat.

The best way to change our eating habits and help the environment and the same time is to eat less meat. Start a diet based on grains, fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Vegetables such as, grains and fruits should come from homes with suitable backyards in which we can build our own gardens. Another step could be that each family in this country should have one or two meals a week without meat. I know that as meat-eater myself, it is hard sometimes to give up some guilty pleasures such stakes, ribs, and hamburgers. We should think of our future and the environment’s by taking into consideration that eating less meat will make a contribution toward preserving the planet.

Another change we can apply as a society to preserve the environment’s future is the transportation issue. Our society depends on individuals to continue their work and daily activities so society can be functional. To do so, many of us rely on many ways of transportation to give us the mobility to get to and from those places of work and daily activities. Transportation is very important to supply the demands for passengers and freight destined to all types of business to keep our economy going. Vehicles such as cars, buses, tractor trailers, and trains are our main tools of traveling from urban areas to our work and activities. Sadly, the same tools we use for transportation have created growing levels of gases damaging the environment. Due to the large amount of vehicles on the road, transportation has been connected to environmental problems such as pollution from their internal combustions engines. Some of those effects on the environment are climate reactions to ultraviolet rays, notably over ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

To make some changes in the transportation field, we should start by minimizing the use of our personal vehicles to reduce emissions created by such vehicles. Also we should add to the regulations put in place by our government to ensure clean air in our future. Another effort is the one our government is making in coalition with auto makers in creating a vehicles that run with little to no fossil fuels. Around ten to twenty years ago, the concept of hybrid, biofuels, or electric cars was something out of sci-fi movies, but we are able to see those types of cars on our roadways in our present day. Those types of cars are an indication of our awareness of the environmental issues. The creation of hybrid and electrical cars makes me believe in a future with less pollution.

Another step to preserve the environment is being smarter in the way we utilize energy in our own homes. One easy step to upgrade our homes is to make sure our homes are well insulated. A properly insulated home not only saves energy, but will help reduce our heating bills. To help save energy, the government helps with the cost of some types of insulations. Another home improvement is buying energy efficient appliances. Appliances such washing machines, dryers, dishwashers, refrigerators, and electric ovens can help us significantly save energy, and place extra dollars in our pockets. There many other changes that can we apply to our homes to create an environmental friendly environment

As a business major student, the knowledge learned in this class will be very beneficial to my future as a manger and protector of the environment. In my future position, I will encourage my employees to be smart in regards to the transportation issue. I will suggest my company to give or help with bus tickets. I will also suggest the company invest in a fleet or green cars to provide carpool to employees. In regards to food, I will suggest healthier or organic foods in the cafeterias, also better foods in the vending machines. I will suggest the replacement of any soda machines for a natural juice machines. I will strongly promote the recycling program in my company. I will also suggest the replacement of microwave to ones that are energy efficient. I will suggest the changing of lights and light fixtures that are energy friendly. I know that most of the companies are looking for the bottom line of numbers. With all the ideas I suggested, the company will have a more efficient workforce and their annual revenue will increase. The company’s monthly bills will show the savings in regards to all the energy efficient tools put in place.

In conclusion, there is nothing we can do about what has been done to the environment in the past. During this class I learned that there is much more we can do to help the environment in the present and the future. Our current majors hopefully will place us in positions in which we can influence a workforce to do the right thing. Until that change arrives, we still can make changes ourselves in our daily routines to prevent more damage to the environment.

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